ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Computationally secure multiple secret sharing: models, schemes, and formal security analysis
A multi-secret sharing scheme (MSS) allows a dealer to share multiple secrets among a set of participants. in such a way a multi-secret sharing scheme (MSS) allows a dealer to share multiple secrets among a set of participants, such that any authorized subset of participants can reconstruct the secrets. Up to now, existing MSSs either require too long shares for participants to be perfect secure, or do not have a formal security analysis/proof. In 2013, Herranz et al. provided the first formal definition of computational security for multi-stage secret sharing scheme (MSSS) in the standard model and proposed a practical and secure scheme. As far as we know, their scheme is the only computationally secure MSS in the standard model, and there is no formal definition of the computational security for other categories of MSSs. Based on this motivation, in this paper, we define the first formal model of indistinguishability against the chosen secret attacks (CSA) for other types of MSSs in the standard model. Furthermore, we present two practical CSA-secure MSSs, belonging to different types of MSSs and enjoying the advantage of short shares. They are also provably secure in the standard model. Based on the semantic security of the underlying encryption schemes, we prove the security of our schemes.
http://www.isecure-journal.com/article_39208_5d5a73550a70ea5d6bb13549b652a583.pdf
2015-07-01T11:23:20
2017-12-13T11:23:20
91
99
10.22042/isecure.2016.7.2.2
Multi-secret Sharing Scheme
Multi-stage Secret Sharing Scheme
Provable Security
Private-key Cryptosystem
Standard Model
S.
Mashhadi
smashhadi@iust.ac.ir
true
1
LEAD_AUTHOR
[1] M. Bellare, A. Boldyreva, S. Micali, Public-key encryption in a multi-user setting: Security proofs and improvements, in: Proceeding of Euro-crypt'00, in: LNCS, 1807, Springer-Verlag, 2000, pp. 259-274.
1
[2] M. Bellare, A. Desai, E. Jokipii, P. Rogaway, A concrete security treatment of symmetric encryption, in: FOCS'97, IEEE Society Press, 1997, pp. 394-403.
2
[3] M. Bellare, P. Rogaway, Introduction to modern cryptography, Notes for the course CSE207 of the University of California, San Diego, available at http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/classes/sp99/cse207/index.html, visited at November 2012.
3
[4] C. Cachin, On-line secret sharing, in Proceedings of IMA Conference'95, in: LNCS, 1025, Springer-Verlag, 1995, pp. 190-198.
4
[5] T.Y. Chang, M. S. Hwang, W. P.Yang, A new multi-stage secret sharing scheme using one-way function, ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems, 39, 2005, pp. 48-55.
5
[6] H.-Y. Chien, J.-K. Jan, Y.-M. Tseng, A practical (t, n) multi-secret sharing scheme, IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer 83-A, 12, 2000, pp. 2762-2765.
6
[7] M. H. Dehkordi, S. Mashhadi, New efficient and practical verifiable multi-secret sharing schemes, Information Sciences 178, 9, 2008, pp. 2262-2274.
7
[8] J. He, E. Dawson, Multistage secret sharing based on one-way function, Electronics Letters 30, 19, 1994, pp. 1591-1592.
8
[9] J. Herranz, A. Ruiz, G. Sáez, Sharing many secrets with computational provable security, Information Processing Letters 113, 2013, pp. 572-579.
9
[10] C. Hu, X. Liao, X. Cheng, Verifiable multi-secret sharing based on LFSR sequences, Theoret. Commun. Sci. 445, 2012, pp. 52-62.
10
[11] M. Karchmer, A. Wigderson, On Span Programs, in: Proceeding of SCTC'93, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1993, pp. 102-111.
11
[12] J. Katz, Y. Lindell, Introduction to Modern Cryptography, Chapman & Hall/CRC, New York, 2008.
12
[13] J. Katz, M. Yung, Characterization of security notions for probabilistic private-key encryption, Journal of Cryptology, 19, 2006, pp. 67-95.
13
[14] H. Krawczyk, Secret sharing made short, in: Proceedings of Crypto'93, in LNCS, 773, Springer-Verlag, 1993, pp. 136-146.
14
[15] H. X. Li, C. T. Cheng, L. J. Pang, An improved Multi-stage (t, n)-threshold secret sharing scheme, LNCS 3739, 2005, pp. 267-274.
15
[16] H. Y. Lin, Y. S. Yeh, Dynamic multi-secret sharing scheme, Int. J. Contemp. Math. Sciences, 3, 2008, pp. 37-42.
16
[17] S. Mashhadi, M. Hadian Dehkordi, Two verifiable multi secret sharing schemes based on nonhomogeneous linear recursion and LFSR public-key cryptosystem, Information Sciences 294, 2015, pp. 31-40.
17
[18] B. Masucci, Sharing multiple secret: Models, schemes and analysis, Designs, Codes and Cryptography, 39, 2006, pp. 89-111.
18
[19] A. Shamir, How to share a secret, Communications of the ACM. 22, 1979, pp. 612-613.
19
[20] C.-C. Yang, T.-Y. Chang, M.-S. Hwang, A (t, n) multi-secret sharing scheme, Applied Mathematics and Computation 151, 2004, pp. 483-490.
20
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Efficient implementation of low time complexity and pipelined bit-parallel polynomial basis multiplier over binary finite fields
This paper presents two efficient implementations of fast and pipelined bit-parallel polynomial basis multipliers over GF (2m) by irreducible pentanomials and trinomials. The architecture of the first multiplier is based on a parallel and independent computation of powers of the polynomial variable. In the second structure only even powers of the polynomial variable are used. The parallel computation provides regular and low-cost structure with low critical path delay. In addition, the pipelining technique is applied to the proposed structures to shorten the critical path and to perform the computation in two clock cycles. The implementations of the proposed methods over the binary extension fields GF (2163) and GF (2233) have been successfully verified and synthesized using Xilinx ISE 11 by Virtex-4, XC4VLX200 FPGA.
http://www.isecure-journal.com/article_39209_81c33c86c4f60accd6de5e48d763c95f.pdf
2015-09-02T11:23:20
2017-12-13T11:23:20
101
114
10.22042/isecure.2016.7.2.3
Bit-parallel Multiplier
Elliptic Curve Cryptography
Trinomials
Pentanomials
Pipelining
B.
Rashidi
b.rashidi@ec.iut.ac.ir
true
1
LEAD_AUTHOR
R.
Rezaeian Farashahi
farashahi@cc.iut.ac.ir
true
2
AUTHOR
S. M.
Sayedi
m_sayedi@cc.iut.ac.ir
true
3
AUTHOR
[1] Arash Reyhani-Masoleh, "A New Bit-Serial Architecture for Field Multiplication Using Polynomial Bases", Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems-CHES 2008, Vol. 5154, pp. 300-314.
1
[2] Che-Wun Chiou and Huey-Lin Jeng, "Parallel Algorithm for Polynomial Basis Multiplier in GF(2m) Fields", Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2008, pp. 211-218.
2
[3] XIE Jia-feng, HE Jian-jun, GUI Wei-hua, "Low latency systolic multipliers for finite field GF(2m) based on irreducible polynomials", Journal of Central South University, Vol. 19, Iss. 5, 2012, pp. 1283-1289.
3
[4] Huapeng Wu, "Bit-Parallel Finite Field Multiplier and Squarer Using Polynomial Basis", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 51, No. 7, July 2002, pp. 750-758.
4
[5] Eduardo Cuevas-Farfan, Miguel Morales-Sandoval, Alicia Morales-Reyes, Claudia Feregrino-Uribe, Ignacio Algredo-Badillo, Paris Kitsos, René Cumplido, "Karatsuba-Ofman Multiplier with Integrated Modular Reduction for GF(2m)", Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2013, pp. 3-10.
5
[6] M. Elia, M. Leone and C. Visentin, "Low complexity bit-parallel multipliers for GF (2m) with generator polynomial P(x) = xm + xk + 1", Electronics Leters 1st April 1999 Vol. 35 No. 7, pp. 551-552.
6
[7] Nam Su Chang, Chang Han Kim, Young-Ho Park, and Jongin Lim, "A Non-redundant and Efficient Architecture for Karatsuba-Ofman Algorithm", Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information Security (ISC), Singapore, September 20-23, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Vol. 3650, 2005, pp. 288-299.
7
[8] Mario Alberto García-Martínez, Rubén Posada- Gómez, Guillermo Morales-Luna and Francisco Rodríguez-Henríquez, "FPGA Implementation of an Efficient Multiplier over Finite Fields GF(2m)", Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Reconfigurable Computing and FPGAs, 2005, pp.21-26.
8
[9] Chester Rebeiro and Debdeep Mukhopadhyay, "Hybrid Masked Karatsuba Multiplier for GF (2233)", 11th IEEE VLSI Design and Test Symposium, Kolkata, August 2007.
9
[10] Che Wun Chiou and Liuh Chii Lin, "Fast Array Multiplications over GF (2m) Fields with Multiple Speeds", Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 7, No 3, 2004 , pp. 139-144.
10
[11] Junfeng Fan and Ingrid Verbauwhede, "A Digit-Serial Architecture for Inversion and Multiplication in GF(2m)", IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Systems, 8-10 Oct. 2008, pp. 7-12.
11
[12] Lejla Batina, Nele Mentens, Sıddıka Berna Ors, Bart Preneel, "Serial Multiplier Architectures over GF(2m) for Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems", 12th IEEE Electro technical Conference, Vol.2 2004, pp. 779-782.
12
[13] Jeng-Shyang Pan, Chiou-Yng Lee and Pramod Kumar Meher, "Low-Latency Digit-Serial and Digit-Parallel Systolic Multipliers for Large Binary Extension Fields", IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, Dec. 2013, pp. 3195-3204.
13
[14] Nazar A. Saqib, Francisco Rodriguez-Henriquez and Arturo Diaz-Perez, "A Parallel Architecture for Fast Computation of Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplication over GF (2m)" 18th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, 26-30 April 2004.
14
[15] George N. Selimis, Apostolos P. Fournaris, Harris E. Michail, Odysseas Koufopavlou, "Improved throughput bit-serial multiplier for GF(2m) fields", Integration, the VLSI Journal 42, 2009, pp. 217-226.
15
[16] Che-Wun Chiou, Chiou-Yng Lee and Jim-Min Lin, "Finite Field Polynomial Multiplier with Linear Feedback Shift Register", Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2007, pp. 253-264.
16
[17] Chiou-Yng Lee, Che Wun Chiou , Jim-Min Lin, "Low-complexity bit-parallel dual basis multipliers using the modified Booths algorithm", Computers and Electrical Engineering Vol. 31, 2005, pp. 444-459.
17
[18] Ali Zakerolhosseini, Morteza Nikooghadam, "Low-power and high-speed design of a versatile bit-serial multiplier in finite fields GF (2m)", Integration, the VLSI Journal Vol. 46, 2013, pp. 211-217.
18
[19] C. Grabbe, M. Bednara, J. Teich, J. von zur Gathen, J. Shokrollahi "FPGA Designs of Parallel High Performance GF(2233) Multipliers" International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2003, Vol. 2, pp. 268-271.
19
[20] Yin Li, Gongliang Chen, Xiao-ning Xie: "Low complexity bit-parallel GF (2m) multiplier for all-one polynomials", IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive 2012: 414 (2012).
20
[21] Haining Fan, Jiaguang Sun, Ming Gu and Kwok-Yan Lam, "Overlap-free Karatsuba-Ofman Polynomial Multiplication Algorithms", IET Information security, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2010, pp. 8-14.
21
[22] Sameh M. Shohdy, Ashraf B. El-Sisi, and Nabil Ismail, "Hardware Implementation of Efficient Modified Karatsuba Multiplier Used in Elliptic Curves", International Journal of Network Security, Vol. 11, No. 3, Nov. 2010, pp.155-162.
22
[23] Mohammed Benaissa and Wei Ming Lim, "Design of Flexible GF(2m) Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processors", IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 14, No. 6, June 2006, pp. 659-662.
23
[24] Arash Reyhani-Masoleh, and M. Anwar Hasan, "Low Complexity Bit Parallel Architectures for Polynomial Basis Multiplication over GF (2m)", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 53, No. 8, August 2004, pp. 945-959.
24
[25] Chiou-Yng Lee, Chin-Chin Chen,Yuan-Ho Chen and Erl-Huei Lu, "Low-Complexity Bit-Parallel Systolic Multipliers over GF(2m)", IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 2006, pp. 1-6.
25
[26] Gang Zhou, Harald Michalik, and László Hinsenkamp, "Complexity Analysis and Efficient Implementations of Bit Parallel Finite Field Multipliers Based on Karatsuba-Ofman Algorithm on FPGAs", IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 18, No. 7, July 2010, pp. 1057-1066.
26
[27] Haining Fan and M. Anwar Hasan, "A New Approach to Sub-quadratic Space Complexity Parallel Multipliers for Extended Binary Fields", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 56, No. 2, February 2007, pp. 224-233.
27
[28] Miguel Morales-Sandoval, Claudia Feregrino-Uribe, René Cumplido, Ignacio Algredo-Badillo, "An area/performance trade-off analysis of a GF(2m) multiplier architecture for elliptic curve cryptography", Computers and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 35, 2009, pp. 54-58.
28
[29] Huapeng Wu, "Bit-Parallel Finite Field Multiplier and Square Using Polynomial Basis", IEEE Transactions Computers, Vol. 51, 2002, pp. 750-758.
29
[30] Lee, C. Y., Lu, E. H. and Lee, J. Y., "Bit-Parallel Systolic Multipliers for GF (2m) Fields Defined by All-One and Equally-Spaced Polynomials," IEEE Transactions Computers, Vol. 50, 2001, pp. 385-393.
30
[31] Lee, C. Y., "Low Complexity Bit-Parallel Systolic Multiplier Over GF (2m) Using Irreducible Trinomials," IEE Proc. Comput. Digit. Tech., Vol. 150, 2003, pp. 39-42.
31
[32] Bahram Rashidi, Reza Rezaeian Farashahi, Sayed Masoud Sayedi, "High-speed and Pipelined Finite Field Bit-Parallel Multiplier over GF(2m) for Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems", Proceedings of the 11th International ISC Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC), 3-4 Sept. 2014, pp. 15-20.
32
[33] G. Zhou, L. Li, and H. Michalik, "Area optimization of bit parallel finite field multipliers with fast carry logic on FPGAs", Proceedings of the International Conference on Field Program. Logic and Applications (ICFPL), Sep. 2008, pp. 671-674.
33
[34] W. N. Chelton and M. Benaissa, "Fast elliptic curve cryptography on FPGA," IEEE Transactions Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) System, Vol. 16, No. 2, Feb. 2008, pp. 198-205.
34
[35] F. Rodríguez-Henríquez, N. A. Saqib, and N. Cruz-Cortés, "A fast implementation of multiplicative inversion over GF(2m)", in Proceedings of the International Conference on Inf. Technol.: Coding Computer, 2005, pp. 574-579.
35
[36] Reza Azarderakhsh, Arash Reyhani-Masoleh, "Low-Complexity Multiplier Architectures for Single and Hybrid-Double Multiplications in Gaussian Normal Bases", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 62, No. 4, April 2013, pp. 744-757.
36
[37] Arash Reyhani-Masoleh, "Efficient Algorithms and Architectures for Field Multiplication Using Gaussian Normal Bases," IEEE Transactions Computers, Vol. 55, No. 1, Jan. 2006, pp. 34-47.
37
[38] A.H. Namin, H. Wu, and M. Ahmadi, "A Word-Level Finite Field Multiplier Using Normal Basis," IEEE Transactions Computers, Vol. 60, No. 6, June 2010, pp. 890-895.
38
[39] Arash Reyhani-Masoleh and M.A. Hasan, "A New Construction of Massey-Omura Parallel Multiplier over GF (2m)" IEEE Transactions Computers, Vol. 51, No. 5, May 2002, pp. 511-520.
39
[40] C. K. Koç and B. Sunar, "An Efficient Optimal Normal Basis Type II Multiplier over GF (2m)" IEEE Transactions Computers, Vol. 50, No. 1, Jan. 2001, pp. 83-87.
40
[41] Arash Reyhani-Masoleh, M. Anwar Hasan, "Low Complexity Word-Level Sequential Normal Basis Multipliers", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 54, No. 2, Feb. 2005, pp.98-110.
41
[42] Arash Reyhani-Masoleh, M. Anwar Hasan, "Efficient Digit-Serial Normal Basis Multipliers over Binary Extension Fields", ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, Vol. 3, No. 3, August 2004, pp. 575-592.
42
[43] Jenn-Shyong Horng, I-Chang Jou, Chiou-Yng Lee, "Low-complexity multiplexer-based normal basis multiplier over GF(2m)", Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, 2009 Vol. 10, No.6, pp. 834-842.
43
[44] Huapeng Wu, "Bit-Parallel Polynomial Basis Multiplier for New Classes of Finite Fields", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 57, No. 8, August 2008, pp. 1023-1031.
44
[45] M. Nikooghadam, A. Zakerolhosseini, "Utilization of Pipeline Technique in AOP Based Multipliers with Parallel Inputs", Journal of Signal Processing Systems, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. 57-62.
45
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
EEH: AGGH-like public key cryptosystem over the eisenstein integers using polynomial representations
GGH class of public-key cryptosystems relies on computational problems based on the closest vector problem (CVP) in lattices for their security. The subject of lattice based cryptography is very active and there have recently been new ideas that revolutionized the field. We present EEH, a GGH-Like public key cryptosystem based on the Eisenstein integers Z [ζ3] where ζ3 is a primitive cube root of unity. EEH applies representations of polynomials to the GGH encryption scheme and we discuss its key size and parameters selection. We also provide theoretical and experimental data to compare the security and efficiency of EEH to GGH with comparable parameter sets and show that EEH is an improvement over GGH in terms of security and efficiency.
http://www.isecure-journal.com/article_39210_0e8227907fad5648294ca716ba50db58.pdf
2015-10-29T11:23:20
2017-12-13T11:23:20
115
126
10.22042/isecure.2016.7.2.4
Lattice-based Cryptography
Public-key Cryptosystem
GGH
Dedekind Domain
Polynomial Representation
R.
Ebrahimi Atani
rebrahimi@guilan.ac.ir
true
1
LEAD_AUTHOR
Sh.
Ebrahimi Atani
ebrahimi@guilan.ac.ir
true
2
AUTHOR
A.
Hassani Karbasi
amirhassanikarbasi@gmail.com
true
3
AUTHOR
[1] V. Lyubashevsky, and D. Micciancio, Generalized compact knapsacks are collision resistant, In Proceedings of ICALP, (2006), Vol. 4052 of LNCS, pages 144-155.
1
[2] C. Peikert, and A. Rosen, Lattices that admit logarithmic worst-case to average-case connection factors, In Proceedings of STOC, ACM, (2007), pages 478-487.
2
[3] O. Regev, On lattices, learning with errors, random linear codes, and cryptography, Journal of ACM, (2009), Vol. 56, pages 6-34.
3
[4] C. Peikert, and B. Waters, Lossy trapdoor functions and their applications, In Proceedings of STOC, (2008), pages 187-196.
4
[5] V. Lyubashevsky, A. Palacio, and G. Segev, Public-key cryptographic primitives provably as secure as subset sum, In D. Micciancio, editor, Proceedings of TCC, (2010), Vol. 5978 of LNCS, pages 382-400.
5
[6] C. Gentry, C. Peikert, and V. Vaikuntanathan, Trapdoors for hard lattices and new cryptographic constructions, In Proceedings of STOC, (2008), pages 197-206.
6
[7] V. Lyubashevsky, and D. Micciancio, Asymptotically efficient lattice-based digital signatures, In Proceedings of TCC, (2008), Vol. 4948 of LNCS, pages 37-54.
7
[8] D. Gordon, J. Katz, and V. Vaikuntanathan, A group signature scheme from lattice assumptions, Advances in Cryptology-ASIACRYPT, (2010), Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pages 395-412.
8
[9] S. Agrawal, D. Boneh, and X. Boyen, Lattice basis delegation in fixed dimension and shorter-ciphertext hierarchical ibe, Advances in Cryptology CRYPTO, (2010), Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pages 98-115.
9
[10] C. Gentry, S. Halevi, and V. Vaikuntanathan, A simple bgn-type cryptosystem from lwe, In H. Gilbert, editor, Advances in Cryptology EUROCRYPT, (2010), Vol. 6110 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 506-522.
10
[11] C. Gentry, Fully homomorphic encryption using ideal lattices, In Proceedings of STOC, ACM, (2009), pages 169-178.
11
[12] D. Stehle, and R. Steinfeld, Faster fully homomorphic encryption, In M. Abe, editor, ASIACRYPT, (2010), Vol. 6477 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 377-394.
12
[13] N. Ogura, G. Yamamoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Uchiyama, An improvement of key generation algorithm for gentrys homomorphic encryption scheme, In IWSEC, (2010), Vol. 6434 of LNCS, pages 70-83.
13
[14] P. Cayrel, R. Lindner, M. Ruckert, and R. Silva, Improved zero-knowledge identification with lattices, Tatra Mountains Mathematical Publications 53.1 (2012), pages 33-63.
14
[15] V. Lyubashevsky, Lattice-based identification schemes secure under active attacks, In Proceedings of PKC, (2008), No. 4939 in LNCS, pages 162-179.
15
[16] P. Gaborit, J. Ohler, and P. Sole, CTRU, a polynomial analogue of NTRU, Technical report, INRIA, France, 2002. Available at ftp://ftp.inria.fr/INRIA/publication/ publipdf/RR/RR-4621.pdf.
16
[17] M. Coglianese, and B.M. Goi, MaTRU: A New NTRU-Based Cryptosystem, In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Cryptology in India (INDOCRYPT), (2005), pages 232-243.
17
[18] N. Vats, NNRU, a Non-commutative Analogue of NTRU, The Computing Research Repository (CoRR), abs/0902.1891, (2009). Available at; http://arxiv.org/abs/0902.1891.
18
[19] R. Kouzmenko, Generalizations of the NTRU Cryptosystem, Master's thesis, Polytechnique Montreal, Canada, (2006).
19
[20] C. Karimianpour, Lattice-Based Cryptosystems, Master's thesis, University of Ottawa, Canada, (2007).
20
[21] M. Nevins, C. Karimianpour, and A. Miri, NTRU over rings beyond Z, Designs, Codes and Cryptography, (2010), vol. 56, no. 1, pages 65-78.
21
[22] E. Malekian, A. Zakerolhosseini, and A. Mashatan, QTRU: Quaternionic Version of the NTRU Public-Key Cryptosystems, The int'l Journal of information Security (ISeCure), (2011), vol. 3, no. 1, pages 29-42.
22
[23] A.H. Karbasi and R.E. Atani, ILTRU: An NTRU-Like Public Key Cryptosystem Over Ideal Lattices, The 7th International IEEE Symposium on Telecommunications (IST2014), Tehran, Iran, (2014).
23
[24] O. Goldreich, Sh. Goldwasser, and Sh. Halevi, Public-key cryptosystems from lattice reduction problems, In CRYPTO '97: Proceedings of the 17th Annual International Cryptology Conference on Advances in Cryptology, London, UK, (1997), pages 112-131.
24
[25] R.J. McEliece, A public-key cryptosystem based on algebraic coding theory, Deep Space Network Progress Report, (1978), No. 44, pages 114-116.
25
[26] P. Nguyen, Cryptanalysis of the Goldreich-Goldwasser-Halevi Cryptosystem from Crypto '97, Advances in Cryptology-Crypto '99, LNCS 1666, (1999), pages 288-304.
26
[27] D. Micciancio, Improving lattice based cryptosystems using the Hermite normal form, In Cryptography and Lattices Conference (CaLC), (2001), pages 126-145.
27
[28] M. Ajtai, and C. Dwork, A Public-Key Cryptosystem with Worst-Case/Average-Case Equivalence, In 29th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, (1997), pages 284-293.
28
[29] C.P. Schnorr, A hierarchy of polynomial time lattice basis reduction algorithms, Theor. Comput. Sci., (1987), No. 53(2-3), pages 201-224.
29
[30] S. Paeng, B. Jung, and K. Ha, A Lattice Based Public Key Cryptosystem Using Polynomial Representations, In Y.G. Desmedt (Ed.), PKC, (2003), Vol. 2567 of LNCS, Springer, pages 292-308.
30
[31] K. Jarvis, and M. Nevins, ETRU: NTRU over the Eisenstein Integers, Designs, Codes and Cryptography 74.1, (2015), pages 219-242.
31
[32] K. Ireland, and M. Rosen, A Classical Introduction to Modern Number Theory, Second Edition. New York: Springer-Verlag, (1990).
32
[33] J. Hoffstein, J. Pipher, and J.H. Silverman, An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography, Springer-Verlag, 1st edition, (2008).
33
[34] J. Hoffstein, N. Howgrave-Graham, J. Pipher, J.H. Silverman, and W. Whyte, NTRU Sign: digital signatures using the NTRU lattice, In Topics in cryptology CT-RSA, (2003), Vol. 2612 of Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci., Springer, pages 122-140.
34
[35] J.H. Silverman, High-Speed Multiplication of (Truncated) Polynomial Rings, NTRU Cryptosystems Technical Report 11, (1999), Available from: http://www.ntru.com. Accessed: Dec 2010.
35
[36] G. Bourgeois, and J. Faugere, Algebraic attack on NTRU using Witt vectors and Grobner bases, In Journal of Math. Crypt., (2009), Vol. 3, pages 205-214.
36
[37] V. Shoup, NTL: A Library for doing Number Theory, http://www.shoup.net/ntl/. Accessed: Aug. (2010).
37
[38] J. Hoffstein, J. Pipher, and J. H. Silverman, NTRU: a ring-based public key cryptosystem, In Algorithmic Number Theory, Portland OR, (1998), Vol. 1423 of Lecture Notes in Comput. Sci., pages 267-288.
38
[39] A.H. Karbasi and R.E. Atani, "PSTRU: A provably secure variant of NTRU Encrypt over extended ideal lattices," The 2nd National Industrial Mathematics Conference, Tabriz, Iran, (2015).
39
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Cryptanalysis of some first round CAESAR candidates
ΑΕS _ CMCCv₁, ΑVΑLΑNCHEv₁, CLΟCv₁, and SILCv₁ are four candidates of the first round of CAESAR. CLΟCv₁ is presented in FSE 2014 and SILCv₁ is designed upon it with the aim of optimizing the hardware implementation cost. In this paper, structural weaknesses of these candidates are studied. We present distinguishing attacks against ΑES _ CMCCv₁ with the complexity of two queries and the success probability of almost 1, and distinguishing attacks on CLΟCv₁ and SILCv₁ with the complexity of Ο (2n/2) queries and the success probability of 0.63, in which n is bit length of message blocks. In addition, a forgery attack is presented against ΑVΑLΑNCHEv₁ which requires only one query and has the success probability of 1. The attacks reveal weaknesses in the structure of these first round candidates and inaccuracy of their security claims.
http://www.isecure-journal.com/article_39211_3b3184008270f50d09c43257f9f95c19.pdf
2015-11-16T11:23:20
2017-12-13T11:23:20
127
134
10.22042/isecure.2016.7.2.5
Authenticated Encryption
CAESAR
ΑES _ CMCCv₁
ΑVΑLΑNCHEv₁
CLΟCv₁
SILCv₁
Distinguishing Attack
Forgery Attack
J.
Alizadeh
alizadja@gmail.com
true
1
LEAD_AUTHOR
M. R.
Aref
aref@sharif.edu
true
2
AUTHOR
N.
Bagheri
nbagheri@srttu.edu
true
3
AUTHOR
H.
Sadeghi
sadeghihassan64@gmail.com
true
4
AUTHOR
[1] Mihir Bellare and Chanathip Namprempre. Authenticated Encryption: Relations among Notions and Analysis of the Generic Composition Paradigm. J. Cryptology, 21(4):469-491, 2008.
1
[2] Shengbao Wu, Hongjun Wu, Tao Huang, Ming-sheng Wang, and Wenling Wu. Leaked-State-Forgery Attack Against The Authenticated Encryption Algorithm ALE. ASIACRYPT 2013, 2013.
2
[3] CAESAR. CAESAR: Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness, 2013. http://competitions.cr.yp. to/caesar.html.
3
[4] Farzaneh Abed, Christian Forler, and Stefan Lucks. Classification of the CAESAR Candidates. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2014.
4
[5] Jonathan Trostle. AES-CMCC v1. CEASAR Cryptographic Competitions, 2014. http://http://competitions.cr.yp.to/ round1/aescobrav1.pdf.
5
[6] Basel Alomair. AVALANCHEv1. CEASAR Cryptographic Competitions, 2014. http://competitions.cr.yp.to/round1/avalanchev1.pdf.
6
[7] Basel Alomair. AVALANCHEv1. CAESAR mailing list, 2014.
7
[8] Tetsu Iwata, Kazuhiko Minematsu, Jian Guo, and Sumio Morioka. CLOC: Compact Low-Overhead CFB. CEASAR Cryptographic Competitions, 2014. http://competitions.cr.yp.to/caesar-submissions.html.
8
[9] Tetsu Iwata, Kazuhiko Minematsu, Jian Guo, Sumio Morioka, and Eita Kobayashi. SILC: SImple Lightweight CFB. CEASAR Cryptographic Competitions, 2014. http://competitions.cr.yp.to/caesar-submissions.html.
9
[10] Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. The Design of Rijndael: AES - The Advanced Encryption Standard. Information Security and Cryptography. Springer, 2002.
10
[11] Guy Barwell. FORGERY ON STATELESS CMCC WITH A SINGLE QUERY. CEASAR Cryptographic Competitions mailing list, 2014.
11
[12] Andrey Bogdanov, Martin M. Lauridsen, and Elmar Tischhauser. Cryptanalysis of AVALANCHEv1. CEASAR Cryptographic Competitions mailing list, 2014. http://martinlauridsen.info/pub/avalanchev1.pdf.
12
[13] Tetsu Iwata, Kazuhiko Minematsu, Jian Guo, and Sumio Morioka. CLOC: Compact Low-Overhead CFB. FSE 2014, 2014.
13
[14] Tomoyasu Suzaki, Kazuhiko Minematsu, Sumio Morioka, and Eita Kobayashi. TWINE: A Lightweight Block Cipher for Multiple Platforms. In Selected Areas in Cryptography, pages 339-354, 2012.
14
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Enhancing privacy of recent authentication schemes for low-cost RFID systems
Nowadays Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems have appeared in lots of identification and authentication applications. In some sensitive applications, providing secure and confidential communication is very important for end-users. To this aim, different RFID authentication protocols have been proposed, which have tried to provide security and privacy of RFID users. In this paper, we analyze the privacy of two recently proposed RFID authentication protocols in 2012 and 2013. We present several traceability attacks including traceability, backward traceability and forward traceability against the first protocol. We also show that, the second protocol not only suffers from Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack, but also it is vulnerable to traceability and backward traceability attacks. We present our privacy analysis based on a well-known formal RFID privacy model which has been proposed by Ouafi and Phan in 2008. Then, in order to overcome the weaknesses, we apply some modifications on these protocols and propose two modified versions.
http://www.isecure-journal.com/article_39212_bd0bcfa447e511b0b23c9facd074c1bb.pdf
2015-10-16T11:23:20
2017-12-13T11:23:20
135
149
10.22042/isecure.2016.7.2.6
RFID Authentication Protocol
security
privacy
EPC C1 G2 Standard
K.
Baghery
baghery.karim@yahoo.com
true
1
LEAD_AUTHOR
B.
Abdolmaleki
abdolmaleki.behzad@yahoo.com
true
2
AUTHOR
B.
Akhbari
akhbari@eetd.kntu.ac.ir
true
3
AUTHOR
M. R.
Aref
aref@sharif.edu
true
4
AUTHOR
[1] D. Heyden, "RFID Applications," Available: http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/11/1023/rfid applications1.asp.
1
[2] S. Maharjan, "RFID and IOT: An overview," Simula Research Laboratory University of Oslo, 2010.
2
[3] L. Yang, P. Yu, W. Bailing, Q. Yun, B. Xuefeng, and Y. Xinling, "Hash-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol," International Journal of Security & Its Applications, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1738-9976, 2013.
3
[4] B. Song and C. J. Mitchell, "Scalable rfid security protocols supporting tag ownership transfer," Comput. Commun., vol. 34, pp. 556-566, 2011.
4
[5] A. Juels, "RFID security and privacy: A research survey," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 24, no. 2, p. 381-394, 2006.
5
[6] A. Juels, and S.A Weis, "Defining strong privacy for RFID," in Proceedings of PerCom'07, pp. 342-347, 2006.
6
[7] B. Alomair, A. Clark, J. Cuellar, and R. Poovendran, "Scalable RFID systems: a privacy-preserving protocol with constant-time identification," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1536-1550, 2012.
7
[8] K. Ouafi, "Security and privacy in RFID systems," PhD Thesis, Ecole Polytechnique Federale DE Lausanne, 2008.
8
[9] M. R. Alagheband, and M. R. Aref, "Simulation-based traceability analysis of RFID authentication protocols," Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 1020-1038, 2014.
9
[10] B. Hameed, I. Khan, F. Durr, and K. Rothermel, "An RFID based consistency management framework for production monitoring in a smart real-time factory," in 2nd International Conference on the Internet of Things (IoT), Tokyo, 2010.
10
[11] D. He, and Sh. Zeadally, "An analysis of RFID authentication schemes for Internet of things in healthcare environment using elliptic curve cryptography," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 72 - 83, 2015.
11
[12] G. Avoine and X. Carpent, "Yet another ultra-lightweight authentication protocol that is broken," in Workshop on RFID Security-RFID-Sec'12, Nijmegen, 2012.
12
[13] M. Asadpour, and M. T. Dashti, "A privacy-friendly RFID protocol using reusable anonymous tickets," in 10th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, Changsha , 2011.
13
[14] Z. Sohrabi-Bonab, M. Alagheband, and M. R. Aref, "Traceability analysis of quadratic residue-based RFID authentication protocols," in Eleventh Annual International Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST), Tarragona , 2013.
14
[15] M. R. Alagheband, and M. R. Aref, "Unified privacy analysis of new founded RFID authentication protocols," Security and Communication Networks, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 999-1009, 2013.
15
[16] M. H. Habibi, M. R. Aref, and Di Ma, "Addressing flaws in RFID authentication protocols," Progress in Cryptology, INDOCRYPT 2011, LNCS 7107, vol. 7, p. 216-235, 2011.
16
[17] P. Babvey, H. A. Yajam, and T. Eghlidos, "Security analysis of SKI protocol," in 11th International ISC Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC), Tehran, 2014.
17
[18] "EPC global Inc.," Available: http://www.epcglobalinc.org.
18
[19] H. Y. Chien, and C. H. Chen, "Mutual authentication protocol for RFID conforming to EPC Class 1 Generation 2 standards," Computer Standards & Interfaces, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 254-259, 2007.
19
[20] E.-J. Yoon, "Improvement of the securing RFID systems conforming to epc class 1 generation 2 standard," Expert Syst. Appl., vol. 39, no. 11, p. 1589-1594, 2012.
20
[21] M.H. Habibi, M. R. Alaghband, and M. R. Aref, "Attacks on a lightweight mutual authentication protocol under EPC C-1 G-2 standard," in Information Security Theory and Practice. Security and Privacy of Mobile Devices in Wireless Communication, Springer, 2011, pp. 254-263.
21
[22] T. C. Yeh, Y. J. Wanga, T. Ch. Kuo, and S. S. Wanga, "Securing RFID systems conforming to EPC Class 1 Generation 2 standard," Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 37, p. 7678-7683, 2010.
22
[23] F. Xiao, Y. Zhou, J. Zhou, H. Zhu, and X. Niu, "Security protocol for RFID system conforming to EPC-C1G2 standard," Journal of Computers, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 605-612, 2013.
23
[24] M. Safkhani, N. Bagheri, P. Peris-Lopez, A. Mitrokotsa, J. C Hernandez-Castro, "Weaknesses in another Gen2-based RFID authentication protocol," in IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications (RFID-TA), 2012.
24
[25] D. N. Duc, J. Park, H. Lee, and K. Kim, "Enhancing security of EPC global Gen-2 RFID tag against traceability and cloning," in Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security (CSIS), pp. 17-20, 2006.
25
[26] S. Karthikeyan, and M. Nesterenko, "RFID security without extensive cryptography," in 3rd ACM Workshop on Security of Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (SASN), pp. 63-67, 2005.
26
[27] S. Vaudenay, "On privacy models for RFID," in ASIACRYPT 2007, LNCS 4833, pp. 68-87., 2007.
27
[28] I. Coisel, and T. Martin, "Untangling RFID privacy models," Journal of Computer Networks and Communications, pp. 1-26, 2013, doi:10.1155/2013/710275.
28
[29] G. Avoine, "Adversarial model for radio frequency identification," Cryptology ePrint Archive, report 2005/049. http://eprint.iacr.org/2005/049, 2005.
29
[30] C. H. Lim, and T. Kwon, "Strong and robust RFID authentication enabling perfect ownership transfer," in Proceedings of ICICS '06, LNCS 4307, pp. 1-20, 2006.
30
[31] K. Ouafi and R. C.-W. Phan, "Privacy of recent RFID authentication protocols," in 4th International Conference on Information Security Practice and Experience (ISPEC), Springer, 2008.
31
[32] R. H. Deng, Y. Li, M. Yung, and Y. Zhao, "A new framework for RFID privacy," in 15th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS), Athens, 2010.
32
[33] D. Moriyama, S. Matsuo, and M. Ohkubo, "Relation among the security models for RFID authentication," in 17th European symposium on research in computer security (ESORICS), pp. 661-678, 2012.
33
[34] M. Safkhani, N. Bagheri, S. K. Sanadhya, and M. Naderi, "Cryptanalysis of improved Yeh et al.'s authentication Protocol: An EPC Class-1 Generation-2 standard compliant protocol," http://eprint.iacr.org/2011/426.pdf, 2011.
34
[35] A. Mohammadali, Z. Ahmadian, and M. R. Aref, "Analysis and Improvement of the securing RFID systems conforming to EPC Class 1 Generation 2 standard," IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, vol. 66, pp. 1-9, 2013.
35
[36] K. Baghery, B. Abdolmaleki, B. Akhbari, and M. R. Aref, "Privacy analysis and improvements of two recent RFID authentication protocols," in 11th International ISC Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC), Tehran, 2014.
36
[37] S.-P. Wang, Q.-M. Ma, Y.- L. Zhang, and Y.-S. Li, "A HMAC-Based RFID Authentication Protocol," in 2nd International Symposium on Information Engineering and Electronic Commerce (IEEC), 2010.
37
[38] J.-S.Cho, S.-S. Yeo, and S. K. Kim, "Securing against brute-force attack: A hash-based RFID mutual authentication protocol using a secret value," Computer Communication, vol. 34, pp. 391-397, 2011.
38
[39] J. Cho, S-C. Kim, and S. K. Kim, "Hash-based RFID tag mutual authentication scheme with retrieval efficiency," in 9th IEEE International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing with Applications, 2011.
39
[40] S. W. Jung, and S. Jung, "HMAC-based RFID authentication protocol with minimal retrieval at server," The Fifth International Conference on Evolving Internet, pp. 52-55, 2013.
40
[41] Y. C. Huang, and J. R. Jiang, "Ultra lightweight RFID reader-tag mutual authentication revisited," in IEEE International Conference on Mobile Services (MS), New York, 2015.
41
[42] D. Z. Sun, and J. D. Zhong, "A hash-based RFID security protocol for strong privacy protection," IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1246-1252, 2012.
42
[43] B. Abdolmaleki, K. Baghery, B. Akhbari, and M. R. Aref, "Attacks and improvements on two new-found RFID authentication protocols," in 7th International Symposium on Telecommunications (IST), Tehran, 2014.
43
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
A collusion mitigation scheme for reputation systems
Reputation management systems are in wide-spread use to regulate collaborations in cooperative systems. Collusion is one of the most destructive malicious behaviors in which colluders seek to affect a reputation management system in an unfair manner. Many reputation systems are vulnerable to collusion, and some model-specific mitigation methods are proposed to combat collusion. Detection of colluders is shown to be an NP-complete problem. In this paper, we propose the Colluders Similarity Measure (CSM) which is used by a heuristic clustering algorithm (the Colluders Detection Algorithm (CDA)) to detect colluders in O (n2m + n4) in which m and n are the total number of nodes and colluders, respectively. Furthermore, we propose an architecture to implement the algorithm in a distributed manner which can be used together with compatible reputation management systems. Implementation results and comparison with other mitigation methods show that our scheme prevents colluders from unfairly increasing their reputation and decreasing the reputation of the other nodes.
http://www.isecure-journal.com/article_39213_f299d818f2716a4fdd1f2f770189e3ca.pdf
2015-12-07T11:23:20
2017-12-13T11:23:20
151
166
10.22042/isecure.2016.7.2.7
Attack resistance
Collusion
Reputation
Trust
M.
Niknafs
m.niknafs@vru.ac.ir
true
1
LEAD_AUTHOR
S.
Dorri Nogoorani
dorri@ce.sharif.edu
true
2
AUTHOR
R.
Jalili
jalili@sharif.edu
true
3
AUTHOR
[1] Sepandar D. Kamvar, Mario T. Schlosser, and Hector Garcia-Molina. The Eigentrust algorithm for reputation management in P2P networks. In Proceedings of the 12th international conference on World Wide Web, pages 640-651, Budapest, Hungary, 2003. ACM Press Press.
1
[2] Li Xiong and Ling Liu. Peertrust: Supporting reputation-based trust for peer-to-peer electronic communities. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 16(7):843-857, 2004.
2
[3] Anupam Das and Mohammad Mahfuzul Islam. Securedtrust: a dynamic trust computation model for secured communication in multia-gent systems. Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on, 9(2):261-274, 2012.
3
[4] Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein. Introduction to algorithms, volume 2. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 2001.
4
[5] Audun Jøsang, Roslan Ismail, and Colin Boyd. A survey of trust and reputation systems for online service provision. Decision support systems, 43(2):618-644, 2007.
5
[6] Xinlei Wang, Kannan Govindan, and Prasant Mohapatra. Collusion-resilient quality of information evaluation based on information provenance. In Proceedings of the 8th Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (SECON), pages 395-403, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, 2011. IEEE.
6
[7] Audun Jøsang, Ross Hayward, and Simon Pope. Trust network analysis with subjective logic. In Proceedings of the 29th Australasian Computer Science Conference-Volume 48, pages 85-94. Australian Computer Society, Inc., 2006.
7
[8] Kevin Hoffman, David Zage, and Cristina Nita-Rotaru. A survey of attack and defense techniques for reputation systems. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 42(1):1, 2009.
8
[9] Félix Gómez Mármol and Gregorio Martínez Pérez. Security threats scenarios in trust and reputation models for distributed systems. Computers & Security, 28(7):545-556, 2009.
9
[10] Xiaoning Jiang and Lingxiao Ye. Reputation-based trust model and anti-attack mechanism in p2p networks. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Networks Security Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (NSWCTC), volume 1, pages 498-501, Wuhan, Hubei, China, 2010. IEEE.
10
[11] Mudhakar Srivatsa, Li Xiong, and Ling Liu. TrustGuard: countering vulnerabilities in reputation management for decentralized overlay networks. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on World Wide Web, pages 422-431, Chiba, Japan, 2005. ACM Press Press.
11
[12] Runfang Zhou and Kai Hwang. Powertrust: A robust and scalable reputation system for trusted peer-to-peer computing. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 18(4):460-473, 2007.
12
[13] Ze Li, Haiying Shen, and K. Sapra. Collusion detection in reputation systems for peer-to-peer networks. In Parallel Processing (ICPP), 2012 41st International Conference on, pages 98-107, Sept 2012.
13
[14] Gayatri Swamynathan, KevinC. Almeroth, and BenY. Zhao. The design of a reliable reputation system. Electronic Commerce Research, 10(3-4):239-270, 2010.
14
[15] Ze Li, Haiying Shen, and K. Sapra. Leveraging social networks to combat collusion in reputation systems for peer-to-peer networks. In Parallel Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS), 2011 IEEE International, pages 532-543, May 2011.
15
[16] Reid Kerr and Robin Cohen. Detecting and identifying coalitions. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems - Volume 3, AAMAS '12, pages 1363-1364, Richland, SC, 2012. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.
16
[17] Gianluca Ciccarelli and Renato Lo Cigno. Collusion in peer-to-peer systems. Computer Networks, 55(15):3517-3532, 2011.
17
[18] Bao Yu, Cao Tianjie, and Zeng Guosun. Resisting collusion by game in culture web. In Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE), 2011 20th IEEE International Workshops on, pages 262-267, June 2011.
18
[19] Roberto Aringhieri, Ernesto Damiani, Sabrina De Capitani di Vimercati, Stefano Paraboschi, and Pierangelo Samarati. Fuzzy techniques for trust and reputation management in anonymous peer-to-peer systems. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(4):528-537, 2006.
19
[20] Ayman Tajeddine, Ayman Kayssi, Ali Chehab, and Hassan Artail. Fuzzy reputation-based trust model. Applied Soft Computing, 11(1):345-355, 2011.
20
[21] Victor E. Lee, Ning Ruan, Ruoming Jin, and Charu Aggarwal. A survey of algorithms for dense subgraph discovery. In Managing and Mining Graph Data, pages 303-336. Springer, USA, 2010.
21
[22] Yunpeng Zhao, Elizaveta Levina, and Ji Zhu. Community extraction for social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(18):7321-7326, 2011.
22
[23] Michelle Girvan and Mark EJ Newman. Community structure in social and biological networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(12):7821-7826, 2002.
23
[24] Gaoxia Wang, Yi Shen, and Ming Ouyang. A vector partitioning approach to detecting community structure in complex networks. Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 55(12):2746-2752, 2008.
24
[25] Xutao Wang, Guanrong Chen, and Hongtao Lu. A very fast algorithm for detecting community structures in complex networks. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 384(2):667-674, 2007.
25
[26] Mark E. J. Newman. Detecting community structure in networks. The European Physical Journal B-Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, 38(2):321-330, 2004.
26
[27] Rui Xu and Donald C. Wunsch II. Survey of clustering algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 16(3):645-678, 2005.
27
[28] Audun Jøsang, Roslan Ismail, and Colin Boyd. A survey of trust and reputation systems for online service provision. Decision Support Systems, 43(2):618-644, 2007.
28
[29] Wang Miao, Xu Zhijun, Zhang Yujun, and Zhang Hongmei. Modeling and analysis of peertrust-like trust mechanisms in p2p networks. In Global Communications Conference (GLOBE-COM), 2012 IEEE, pages 2689-2694. IEEE, 2012.
29
ORIGINAL_ARTICLE
Persian Abstract
http://www.isecure-journal.com/article_45228_a451759f6685be3e2ec87f36cd19a70c.pdf
2015-07-29T11:23:20
2017-12-13T11:23:20
167
172
10.22042/isecure.2015.7.2.8